Elucidating the mechanism m and ms radiometric dating
Although the data for estrogen and its receptor's roles in preventing colon cancer is strongly supported, little is known of the underlying mechanisms.This knowledge is necessary in order to design clinical trials of receptor specific compounds, validate biomarkers, and develop future therapy and prevention strategies, and we propose to characterize this mechanism. Persistent nematode infections are a major threat to important food crops.Modifications to plant cells are largely attributed to the activity of nematode secreted effectors.
The effects are described by integrating FDTD and heat transfer modeling to account for the nanoscale features.Unlike maternal cases where the ratio of meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) errors is 3:1, a near 1:1 ratio exists among paternal cases, with a slight excess of MII errors.We found no paternal age effect for the overall population nor when classifying cases according to stage of non-disjunction error.Therefore, relatively little is known about the cause of non-disjunction in the paternally derived cases.
Molecular studies determining the patent and stage of origin of trisomic conceptuses indicate remarkable variation among chromosomes in the frequency of paternally derived trisomies.
Paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 accounts for 5–10% of Down syndrome cases, therefore, relative to the maternally derived cases, little is known about paternally derived trisomy 21.